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  1. #1
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    Default 2nd Part of series on the 21-foot rule

    Here's the second part from last weeks series on the 21-foot "Tueller Drill" from the Force Science Research Center. One interesting thing of note, most of thier conclusions (with the exception of their desire to extend the interval to 30 feet) have already been proven out in Gabe's FOF secenarios with airsoft. Same conclusions, different methods. There's a lot of good tidbits in this aritcle. Enjoy:

    Now in this final installment of our 2-part series we discuss additional
    conclusions regarding edged-weapon defense, namely:

    3. For many officers and situations, a 21-foot reactionary gap is not
    sufficient.

    4. Weapons that officers often think they can depend on to defeat knife
    attacks can't be relied upon to protect them in many cases.

    5. Training in edged-weapon defense should by no means be abandoned.

    Here's what FSRC's executive director and selected members of the Center's
    National and Technical Advisory Boards have to say on these topics:

    3. MORE DISTANCE. "In reality, the 21-Foot Rule--by itself--may not provide
    officers with an adequate margin of protection," says Dr. Bill Lewinski,
    FSRC's executive director. "It's easily possible for suspects in some
    circumstances to launch a successful fatal attack from a distance greater
    than 21 feet."

    Among other police instructors, John Delgado, retired training officer for
    the Miami-Dade (FL) PD, has extended the 21-Foot Rule to 30 feet.
    "Twenty-one feet doesn't really give many officers time to get their gun
    out and fire accurately," he says. "Higher-security holsters complicate the
    situation, for one thing. Some manufacturers recommend 3,000 pulls to
    develop proficiency with a holster. Most cops don't do that, so it takes
    them longer to get their gun out than what's ideal. Also shooting
    proficiency tends to deteriorate under stress. Their initial rounds may not
    even hit."

    Beyond that, there's the well-established fact that a suspect often can
    keep going from momentum, adrenalin, chemicals and sheer determination,
    even after being shot. "Experience informs us that people who are shot with
    a handgun do not fall down instantly nor does the energy of a handgun round
    stop their forward movement," states Chris Lawrence, team leader of DT
    training at the Ontario (Canada) Police College and an FSRC Technical
    Advisory Board member. Says Lewinski: "Certain arterial or spinal hits may
    drop an attacker instantly. But otherwise a wounded but committed suspect
    may have the capacity to continue on to the officer's location and complete
    his deadly intentions."

    That's one reason why tactical distractions, which we'll discuss in a
    moment, should play an important role in defeating an edged-weapon attack,
    even when you are able to shoot to defend yourself.

    "When working with bare-minimum margins, any delay in an officer
    responding to a deadly threat can equate to injury or death," reinforces
    attorney and use-of-force trainer Bill Everett, an FSRC National Advisory
    Board member. "So the officer must key his or her reaction to the first
    overt act indicating that a lethal attack is coming.

    "More distance and time give the officer not only more tactical options but
    also more opportunity to confirm the attacker's lethal intention before
    selecting a deadly force response."

    4. MISPLACED CONFIDENCE. Relying on OC or a Taser for defeating a charging
    suspect is probably a serious mistake. Gary Klugiewicz, a leading
    edged-weapon instructor and a member of FSRC's National Advisory Board,
    points out that firing out Taser barbs may be an effective option in
    dealing with a threatening but STATIONARY subject. But depending on this
    force choice to stop a charging suspect could be disastrous.

    With fast, on-rushing movement, "there's a real chance of not hitting the
    subject effectively and of not having sufficient time" for the electrical
    charge--or for a blast of OC--to take effect before he is on you,
    Klugiewicz says.

    Lewinski agrees, adding: "A rapid charge at an officer is a common
    characteristic of someone high on chemicals or severely emotionally
    disturbed. More research is needed, but it appears that when a Taser isn't
    effective it is most often with these types of suspects."

    Smug remarks about offenders foolishly "bringing a knife to a gunfight"
    betray dangerous thinking about the ultimate force option, too. Some
    officers are cockily confident they'll defeat any sharp-edged threat
    because they carry a superior weapon: their service sidearm. This belief
    may be subtly reinforced by fixating on distances of 21 or 30 feet, as if
    this is the typical reaction space you'll have in an edged-weapon encounter.

    The truth is that where edged-weapon attacks are concerned, "close-up
    confrontations are actually the norm," points out Sgt. Craig Stapp, a
    firearms trainer with the Tempe (AZ) P.D. and a member of FSRC's Technical
    Advisory Board. "A suspect who knows how to effectively deploy a knife can
    be extremely dangerous in these circumstances. Even those who are not
    highly trained can be deadly, given the close proximity of the contact, the
    injury knives are capable of, and the time it takes officers to process and
    react to an assault.

    "At close distances, standing still and drawing are usually not the best
    tactics to employ and may not even be possible." At a distance of 10 feet,
    a subject is less than half a second away from making the first cut on an
    officer, Lewinski's research shows. Therefore, rather than relying on a
    holstered gun, officers must be trained in hands-on techniques to deflect
    or delay the use of the knife, to control it and/or to remove it from the
    attacker's grasp, or to buy time to get their gun out. These methods have
    to be simple enough to be learned by the average officer.
    **Spero optimus instruo pro pessimus**

    **Out of destruction rises opportunity. We are only defeated when we give up. Never, ever give up. (Phil 4:13)**

  2. #2
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    Default 2nd Page of the second part

    Two techniques that bear reinforcement are illustrated in the well-known
    training video "Surviving Edged Weapons", for which Gary Klugiewicz was a
    technical consultant. One is a deflection technique called Sweep and
    Disengage. The other is a tactic for controlling the attacker's weapon
    hand, called by the acronym G.U.N. (Grab...Undo...Neutralize).

    Stapp strongly believes that training in edged-weapon defense should
    prepare an officer to deal psychologically with getting cut or stabbed, a
    realistic probability with lag time, close encounters and desperate control
    attempts. "Officers need to be trained to continue to fight," Stapp says.
    "They will not have time to stop and assess how severe the wound is. You
    don't want them in the mind-set, 'I've been cut, I'm going to die.' They
    must remain focused on stopping the attack, taking out the guy who is the
    threat to them."

    Checking yourself over for injury after the offender is subdued is
    important, too, Klugiewicz says. "Some survivors of edged-weapon attacks
    report that they were not aware of being cut or stabbed when the injury
    occurred. They thought they had just been punched and didn't realize what
    really happened until later."

    5. TRAINING. "Assuming it is presented accurately and in context with the
    many variables that shape knife encounters, the 21-Foot Rule can be a
    valuable training aid," Lewinski says. "As a role-playing exercise, it
    provides a dramatic and memorable demonstration of how fast an offender can
    close distance, and it can motivate officers to improve their performance
    skills."

    Experiment with it and you may conclude, like Delgado, that 21 feet is not
    enough of a safety margin for your troops.

    You might also use 21-Foot Rule exercises to test tactical methods for
    imposing lag time on offenders in order to buy more reaction time for
    officers. These could range from using or creating obstacles (standing
    behind a tree or shoving a chair between you and the offender) to moving
    yourself strategically. You're probably familiar with the Tactical L, for
    example, in which an officer moves laterally to a charging offender's line
    of attack. With the right timing, this surprises and slows the attacker as
    he processes the movement and scrambles to redirect his assault, and gives
    the officer opportunity to draw and get on target.

    Lewinski favors a variation called the Tactical J. Here, instead of moving
    90 degrees off line, the officer moves obliquely forward at a 45-degree
    angle to the oncoming offender.
    "This tends to be more confusing to the
    suspect and requires more of a radical change on his part to come after
    you," Lewinski says. "But the timing has to be such that the suspect is
    fully committed to his charge and can't readily adjust to what you've done.
    That takes lots of practice with a wide variety of training partners."

    If nothing else, training with the 21-Foot Rule will help officers better
    estimate just how far 21 feet is. Without a good deal of practice, most
    can't accurately gauge that distance, Lewinski says, and thus tend to
    sabotage appropriate defensive reactions.

    Don't forget, though, that most edged-weapon attacks are "up close and
    personal." That means training must include effective empty-hand-control
    techniques, close quarters shooting drills and weapon retention. "We need
    to develop the ability to draw our sidearm, get on target and GET HITS
    extremely fast," while moving as a diversionary measure if possible, says
    Stapp. "Close-range shooting--under 10 feet--will most effectively be
    accomplished when an officer has developed the ability to get on target 'by
    feel,' without using his sights."


    Lewinski also recommends drills to imprint rapid reholstering techniques.
    Reholstering may become necessary if there's a sudden change in threat
    level--say the offender throws his weapon down and is no longer presenting
    an imminent threat justifying deadly force--and the officer needs both
    hands free to deal with him.

    There's little doubt that the "knife culture" and related attacks on
    officers are dangerously flourishing. Edged-weapon assaults are a staple of
    the news reports of police incidents from across the U.S. and Canada on the
    website of FSRC's strategic partner, PoliceOne.com. Recently an officer in
    New York City was slashed in the face during a fight that broke out on a
    man-with-a-gun call...in Ohio, a state trooper fatally shot a berserk
    motorist who charged him with a hatchet...another offender, who called 911
    in Pennsylvania to report he was having a heart attack, ended up shot 13
    times and killed after commands and OC failed to stop him from lunging at a
    trooper with a chain saw...in Calgary (Ont.) a blood-soaked man waved a
    bloody butcher knife over his head and charged at constables who responded
    to a domestic...a suspected rapist attacked a Chicago detective with a
    screwdriver after luring him into an interrogation room by asking for a
    cigarette...in the reception area of a California prison, an inmate serving
    time for trying to kill a cop stabbed a correctional officer to death with
    a shank...in Idaho, an out-of-control teenager punched holes in the walls
    of his house with a 15-inch bayonet, then turned on a responding officer
    with the blade and sliced his uniform before the cop shot him....

    "Given today's environment, rather than draw back on edged-weapon training,
    officers and agencies should be expanding it," Lewinski declares.
    "Edged-weapon attacks are serious and should be taken seriously by
    trainers, officers and administrators alike. Finding out what works best in
    the way of realistic tactical defenses and then training those tactics as
    broadly as possible has never been more needed."

    FSRC is currently involved in additional research on the dynamics of
    edged-weapon confrontations and plans a major report on its findings before
    the end of this year.
    Last edited by michael; 04-30-2005 at 08:52 AM.
    **Spero optimus instruo pro pessimus**

    **Out of destruction rises opportunity. We are only defeated when we give up. Never, ever give up. (Phil 4:13)**

  3. #3
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    Default 21-foot rule

    Michael, thank you very much for posting this. This sort of material is one of the reasons this Forum is head and shoulders above the rest.

    God bless and y'all be mindful out there.

  4. #4
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    Geezer, you're very welcome. I did find that this section was much better than the one from last week.

    The 30-foot proposal is ludicrous, IMHO. However, the part about charging forward at an oblique angle is excellent, but that's what Gabe's been saying all along. I'm looking forward to CRG2 in S.C. in September to see how much has been modified since I took CRG1 last year.
    **Spero optimus instruo pro pessimus**

    **Out of destruction rises opportunity. We are only defeated when we give up. Never, ever give up. (Phil 4:13)**

  5. #5
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    Default Post-Modernist

    SB posted: "Maybe we should change the Bar exam for the guys that do not feel like studying, WTF!!!"

    As we race forward into the brave new world of post-modernism, that is a perfectly modern idea. After all, how can anyone else assume the authority to tell a lawyer what she needs to know in order to practice law? The law is whatever a person feels it to be at that time. It is silly to study cases that will be outdated tomorrow morning.

    There shouldn't even be a bar exam. I believe any person who feels that they are "in tune" with the law, should be able to call themselves a lawyer and charge fees accordingly. In fact, each person should be able to make up their own laws, and change them whenever they aren't comfortable.

    Of course the same is true for doctors. What right does anyone have to tell you that you can't practice medicine. After all, a person might be channeling Galen, or some other great father of medicine. Everyone, even little children are the best judges of what is necessary and what is not, just as everyone knows what is right or wrong for them, and the rest of us need to not just respect those personal decisions and positions, but to celebrate the wonderful diversity that they bring to our world.

    Solipsism, found in the Diagnostic Manual, the media, the movies, TV, MBA programs, and of course, the government.

    God bless and y'all be mindful out there.

  6. #6
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    Michael, I have to say the second installment reads beter and makes a little more sense, I like you still think 30or even 21 ft is nuts. Should be more FoF drills and training up close for every Officer,and just IMO is another reason Officers should carry secondary weapons
    All animals except man know that the ultimate of life is to enjoy it.

    Samuel Butler


    FACIEM TUAM, DOMINC, REQUIRAM

  7. #7
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    Quote Originally Posted by DaveJames
    Should be more FoF drills and training up close for every Officer,
    I think this is where most department training falls short. They are so concerned in getting the state requirements in for diversity training, blood borne pathogens and other stuff that they ignore one of the most important things they should be doing. FOF drills with airsoft are inexpensive and life-saving training that should be mandatory.
    **Spero optimus instruo pro pessimus**

    **Out of destruction rises opportunity. We are only defeated when we give up. Never, ever give up. (Phil 4:13)**

  8. #8
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    Default Training

    Quote Originally Posted by michael
    I think this is where most department training falls short. They are so concerned in getting the state requirements in for diversity training, blood borne pathogens and other stuff that they ignore one of the most important things they should be doing. FOF drills with airsoft are inexpensive and life-saving training that should be mandatory.
    Most of the major cities utilize sim's training but not as much as they should. You are very correct about the cost/benefit of airsoft training, especially for smaller municipalities but it seems, at least where I live that the ego-factor of the training departments is also attributable for some of the negligence.

    I have been doing airsoft training with my group and some local officers for almost 4 years now, before that paint-ball, and several of these guys are staff instuctors at the local academy- but the director will not integrate into the curriculum. Same with FOF combatives training. They depend on stim-response training and a one hour/month inservice. Ridiculous.

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